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Glossary

Overview

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BMS is an electronic circuit for battery monitoring. It increases a battery pack's safety by making sure that all cells are operated within the permitted voltage range only. When current is too high, temperature is too high or one line of batteries inside the battery is outside the permitted voltage range the charge output will be switched off. This avoids total discharge of the battery during normal operation. An integrated balancer insures that any differences in voltage between single cells are equalized. In case of a problem with the charging device the BMS makes sure that the battery cannot be overcharged. A capacity gauge maybe included to display the remaining capacity.

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E-Bike
E-Bikes are all electric bicycles that are not pedelecs. This applies to bikes with an unrestricted power throttle, a 500W motor or motor support beyond 25kph. In German speaking areas "e-bike" is often used incorrectly as an expression for any kind of electric bicycles. In English speaking countries e-bike is synonymous with "electric bicycle".

Electric bicycle
An electric bicycle is an electrically driven bicycle. Electric bicycles are divided in two categories.

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Hall sensor
Hall sensors are used in motors, cadence sensors and power throttles. Inside the motor they determine the direction in which the motor and submit it to the controller So the motor will turn in the right direction right at the start. Inside the PAS they detect if the magnet disc is rotating. Inside the power throttle they measure how far the throttle is rotated. Hall sensor can be of the analogue or digital kind. Functional principal: When hall sensor are passing by a magnetic field they emit an initial voltage, which is proportional to the product of magnetic field strength and current (Hall Effect). They are named after their invetor Edwin Hall.

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Integrated Pedelec Control System (IPS)
The Integrated Pedelec Control System (IPS) is a set of components for pedelecs. It consists of an EBS IPS controller with power management, a special cable standard and several controls that can be combined at will. By combining an IPS controller with special set up and a fitting motor you create a specific conversion kit. go to EBS 250W Pedelec Conversion Kits.

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Power management
Using the EBS power management the rider can modulate the power deployed by the motor. The different levels enable a smooth start, low energy consumption and due to that a greater range. The levels are selected by the rider via the controls. Find information about EBS power management here.

Wheel maintenance
From us you will get a professionally built and perfectly true wheel. Wheels and especially spokes are exposed to great force while riding. For you to be satisfied with your wheels they need to checked on a regular basis. Switch off your system before the following steps to avoid injury. Check your wheel after the first 50 to 100km (30 to 60mls) for any vertical or lateral wobble.

Regularly check by hand if all spokes have the same tension. To check your wheel for lateral trueness rotate it inside the frame in running direction and watch the rim's sidewalls. Use the brake pads as a mark. The distance between brake pads and rim should not differ more than 0.5mm from side to side. If the distance is significantly larger, the wheel should be trued by your bike dealer.

Checking for vertical wobble works similarly, now watch the outer edge of the rim and use the upper edge of the brake pad as a mark. Here too the distance between upward and downward deviation should not be more than 0.5mm. if it is, please see your local bike dealer. Spoke tension can be checked by gripping two adjacent spokes with thumb and index finger at about 4in from where they cross and squeezing them. The crossing may move for a maximum of about 8mm. Otherwise the spokes are too loose and need to be re-tightened. Check all spokes.

Loose spokes can damage your wheel completely in no time. If your spokes make any disturbing noise when riding like cracking or ringing, you immediately have them re-tightened at your local bike dealer.

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Pedal Assist Sensor (PAS)
In an electric bicycle the PAS measures if force is applied to the pedals. This information will be passed on the controller which then activates the motor to support the rider.

Pedelec
A pedelec is an electric bicycle that by law is treated as a normal bicycle. No insurance or helmet is required and it may be operated on normal bike lanes/paths. To be treated as a pedelec, an electric bicycle has to fulfil these three criteria:
1. The motor has a continuous power of =< 250W
2. The motor only supplies support when the the rider is pedalling.
3. The motor only supports the rider at speeds of up to 25kph (15mls).
In other countries different rules may apply.

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Recuperation
is the term for recovering energy by going downhill or by braking. The energy generated by doing so will be recharged into the battery. In our experience about 5-10% of the energy otherwise lost can be regenerated this way. This way the battery can be partially recharged.

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Total discharge
All varieties of battery chemistry possess an unavoidable self-discharge, meaning the stored energy will be reduced in the course of time. This speed of this process depends on temperature but also on the age and remaining capacity of the battery. Modern lithium-ion cells self discharge very slowly at a rate of about 2-3% per month. Over a long period of but also by storing a fully discharged battery for too long you risk cell voltage to drop below the necessary minimum. This process is called total discharge and usually results in irreversible damage to the cells rendering the battery useless. This problem even cannot be avoided by a modern battery management system (BMS) since low-capacity batteries must be recharged in time by an external energy source (charging device). Usually it is recommended, depending on duration of storage (typically 5 to 6 months during winter) to store a lithium-ion battery at about 40 to 60% of remaining capacity in a dry and cool (15 to 20°C) place. It is possible to store a battery charged to full capacity, but this will make call ageing faster since the higher voltage may accelerate certain deterioration processes inside the cells.

Pedal force support (BionX)
The sensor inside the motor axle not only measures speed but also pedalling force. As opposed to other sensors power is deployed according to pedalling effort. Support is deployed in proportion to pedalling force. The more forceful you pedal the more support is deplyed by the motor.

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Please note that we cannot guarantee for the correctness of statements on this page and therefore disclaim any liability for any damages. This is not constitute as legal advice. no responsibility is taken for the correctness of this information.

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